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You feel “off.” Your chest hurts, your heart starts pounding and you get shaky. Your stomach is queasy and you are lightheaded and feel like you need to sit or lie down. Are you having a heart attack? Or is it a panic attack? In this article we’re covering the differences of heart attack vs panic attack.
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, a “Panic Attack” is defined as 4 or more of the following symptoms:
Heart palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate

Excessive sweating

Trembling or shaking

Sensations of shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, or smothering

Feeling of choking

Chest pain or discomfort

Nausea or abdominal distress

Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint

Feelings of unreality or being detached from oneself

Fear of losing control or going crazy

Fear of dying

Numbness or tingling sensations (paresthesias)

Chills or hot flushes

Eerily, a lot of the same symptoms can be associated with a heart attack. Chest pain, sweating, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, numbness or tingling, and chills or hot flashes, can all be potential signs of a heart attack. So how do you know if it is your heart or your mind?   

Without treatment, a heart attack can ultimately end in sudden cardiac arrest and death, so recognizing the symptoms is crucial. In cases of heart attack, symptoms are usually caused by an on-going condition and typically come on over time. Heart attacks can last minutes, hours, days or even weeks. The difference in chest pain is probably the most significant. While panic attack sufferers typically complain of a pounding, rapid heartbeat, a heart attack is characterized by a feeling of tightness and a crushing sensation. The “tingling” associated with a heart attack is actually more of a shooting pain and numbness on the left side of the body, usually down the left arm, while panic attack tingling can affect all extremities. Additional symptoms such as jaw or back pain have also been reported while someone is having a heart attack, but not during panic attacks.

Panic attacks come on sudden and intense and are usually situational. The symptoms rush the sufferer all at once, peak within about 10 minutes and then subside. While someone suffering a panic attack may have subsequent attacks, they come and go and rarely involve loss of consciousness. Panic attacks can be brought on by the feeling you may be having a heart attack, thereby compounding the situation.    

If you have a combination of the above list of symptoms, see your doctor. Panic attacks can be treated with therapy, and symptoms can sometimesheart attack and panic attack be treated in the short term with medications. If your symptoms are related to cardiovascular issues, your doctor will discuss your options and may suggest lifestyle changes, medications or procedural intervention. In the case of both panic attack and heart attack, finding the cause can improve your quality of life and may, indeed, save your life. Never ignore your feelings when “something just isn’t right”.  
Article taken from

Accident Claim for Adults and children

I get asked on courses how long should you keep hold of accident records. The HSE guide here says minimum 3 years. However remember a child casualty can claim for an injury up to 3 years after their 18th birthday. So technically it could be up to 21 years if the child gets an injury at 1 years old.

‘Special rules apply for children or patients being treated under the Mental Health Act 1983. The time limit (limitation period) does not begin for these people until the legal incapacity is removed. In the case of a child, the three year time limit would begin from the date of their 18th birthday and in the case of a patient treated under the Mental Health Act 1983, the three year deadline would begin from the date they were discharged as a patient.’

First Aid staff and School trips 

Q. How many first-aid personnel are required? 


A. taken from page 7 of 'GUIDANCE ON FIRST AID FOR SCHOOLS


46     Schools will generally fall into the lower risk category, but some schools or areas of activity may fall into the medium risk category.


Schools should base their provision on the results of their risk assessment. If there are parts of the school where different levels of risk can be identified, the employer should consider the need to make different levels of provision in different areas/departments.  When considering how many first-aid personnel are required, the governing body/head teacher should also consider: 
▼     adequate provision for lunchtimes and breaks.  It is good practice to encourage lunchtime supervisors to have first-aid training; 
▼     adequate provision for leave and in case of absences; 
▼     first-aid provision for off-site activities ie school trips. If a first-aider accompanies pupils off-site, will there be adequate first-aid provision in the school? 
▼     adequate provision for practical departments, such as science, technology, home economics, physical education; 

▼     adequate provision for out of hours activities eg sports activities, clubs; 
▼     any agreements with contractors (eg school
 meals) on joint provision for first aid for their
▼     adequate provision for trainees working on site. They have the same status as staff for the purposes of health and safety legislation. 

Too Many Babies Are Still Being Put to Bed Unsafely

A new study looks at the prevalence of unsafe sleep patterns that contribute to SIDS.

Parenting Article

Study after study has proven that putting baby to bed in a safe sleep environment is of the utmost importance to reduce the risk of sleep-related infant death (SIDS). And yet, parents are still making potentially life-threatening mistakes at bedtime.


In a new study, "Nocturnal Video Assessment of Infant Sleep Environments," published in the September 2016 issue of Pediatrics, researchers looked at videos of 167 infants at ages 1, 3, and 6 months being put to bed in their own homes. Even though parents knew they were being recorded, unsafe sleep practices were still noted.

Among the unsafe patterns recorded by researchers: positioning infants on their sides or stomachs to sleep, or on soft surfaces, and with loose bedding. Other parents practiced bed-sharing, which is a proven hazard for small children.

Interestingly, babies who were moved in the middle of the night were more likely to be placed in an unsafe sleep environment. As a three-time mom who is all too familiar with late-night feedings, this makes complete sense. When you are exhausted, you definitely start to cut corners. But the most important takeaway from this study is that there's a huge correlation between practicing safe sleep habits and a baby's well being.

Incident reporting in schools and Nurseries (accidents, diseases and dangerous occurrences) Update

An ‘accident’ is defined as an unplanned and uncontrolled event that has (or could have) resulted in some sort of harm, The harm may be:

  • an injury (eg a cut or fracture)

  • an illness

  • a mental trauma

Major accidents are defined in the Reporting Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR).

I get a number of questions as to what should and should not be reported after an accident. Hopefully the attached HSE document should help. Make sure you read all the document to fully understand what should and should not be reported.

Always ensure that parents attention is brought to any accident involving a child.

Requirement to inform parents

The Early Years Foundation Stage requires providers, on the child’s admission, to seek parental permission for any necessary emergency medical advice or treatment in the future. Provider must also inform parents of any accidents or injuries sustained by the child while the child is in their care and of any first aid treatment given. It does not give a timescale in which to do this but it is good practice to do this on the same day. This will normally be when the child is collected from the childcare provider. Most providers do this by asking parents to view the record of the accident or injury and to sign to say they have seen it. If you wish to use this type of approach you must also be aware of the data protection rules and not allow parents to view personal information other than that relating to their own child. The requirement to inform parents is more general than that to notify Ofsted and parents should be informed of any accident or injury especially where first aid is necessary. Where a child is picked up by someone other than the child’s parent, with the permission of the parent, we would normally accept that notifying this person is sufficient to satisfy this requirement. You may wish to establish this practice by including it in the information you give to parents. The Childcare Register does not specifically require you to inform parents, but it remains good practice to do so.

‘Serious accidents, injuries and deaths that registered providers must notify to Ofsted and local child protection agencies’ (A childcare fact sheet October 2011).

If accidents do occur they should be investigated to prevent them from happening again. The main points to consider when investigating accidents that have caused injuries or damage are:

  • ensure that accidents, especially serious ones, are reported immediately;

  • ensure any injured people are safe and given appropriate medical or first-aid treatment;

  • seal off the scene of the accident – this stops other people getting hurt and will save any evidence;

  • record the contact details of any witnesses;

  • take photographs or draw a sketch of the accident scene;

  • take witness statements – this should be in writing and done as soon aas possible;

  • find out what caused the accident and why it happened. Don’t just look at what caused the injury or damage, find the ‘root’ cause, ie the first event that occurred in the series of events that led to the injury or damage;

  • decide what you need to do to prevent the same accident happening again, and do it;

  • review the actions you have taken to ensure they are effective

  • make sure the accident form or book is filled in.

Remember an accident report is a legal document and as such should not be shared or given out without having an audit trail for any requests and ideally these should be made in writing. In some instances It might be advisable to check with your insurance company and or your governing body to ensure that they are happy for the information to be given out and shared. Remember you can’t refuse to show or share the information with parents but it is a legal document so therefore it is advisable to ensure you have an audit trail for such information requests.

In The News

Asthma Inhaler Use in Schools.

A new presentation has been added to the Course Paperwork section of this site on the correct use of inhalers in schools.

Click this link to be taken to the page.

AED use in the UK.

Everyone can use an AED, even without specific training; they have been developed for use by the public and are also called ‘Public Access Defibrillators’ (PAD). When you call 999, you will be told where the nearest one to you is, all you need to do is switch it on and this will activate verbal/visual prompts telling you what to do. It will only deliver a shock if the heart needs it. 

Today, all over the UK and Europe a variety of events will be encouraging people of all ages to learn CPR skills. The aim of these events is to raise public awareness, encourage communities to organise CPR training and install AEDs, and give people the confidence to put these skills into action and save a life! 

New ‘gold standard’ in paediatric first aid launched

A new initiative to help improve paediatric first aid training in early years settings has been launched today by Education and Childcare Minister Sam Gyimah, in memory of a 9-month-old girl who tragically died in 2012

Health protection – guidance Heatwave Plan for England

Updated guide for schools and early years  providers available below.

Confusion about allergies is putting people needlessly at risk say experts and medical charities

Most allergy tests and natural treatments offered on the high street and online have no scientific basis. These ineffective tests and other kinds of self diagnosis are creating a large proportion of people who think they have an allergy when they don’t. One study found 34% of parents reported food allergies in their children but only 5% actually had an allergy. Myths about artificial additives, junk food and immunisations causing allergies are also contributing to self diagnosed allergy.

The result is that people are not getting other medical conditions diagnosed, taking useless treatments, and needlessly restricting diets, including for children where resulting cases of malnutrition have been observed by clinicians. Meanwhile dangerous allergies are trivialised. Seven times as many people were admitted to hospital with severe allergic reactions in Europe in 2015 than in 2005. UK hospital admissions for anaphylaxis increased 615% between 1992 and 2012.


September 2016


"  Paul is a brilliant tutor accommodates, to everyone's needs, very laid back and puts you at ease by making the learning fun whist interesting life coming on first aid courses 



   This is my forth time having first aid training with Paul and as always it's been informative and interesting. Paul delivers the course in a way that makes it fun to learn and Is honest with any questions asked. Loved having the tablets this time, looking forward to my next training session



     As always, Paul delivers the course in an extremely engaging, informative and knowledgeable way. Highly recommend.



     A really informative training programme, I am going to recommend to my colleagues Thank you



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